WESTERN YELLOW WAGTAIL (Motacilla flava)
- M. f. flava – blue-headed wagtail. Blue-grey head with white supercilium and malar stripe in males. Normally a yellow throat but can have some white on the chin but white does not extend onto the neck like in M.f.beema.
S Scandinavia W to France and C European mountain ranges E to the Urals. Winters sub- Saharan Africa.
- M. f. flavissima – yellow-crowned wagtail. Yellow-green head with a brighter yellow supercilium. Yellow only on the forehead not such extensive as in M. f. lutea which also has a yellow neck.
Ireland (intermittently), Britain & adjacent coastal Europe. Winters Africa.
- M. f. thunbergi – dark-headed wagtail. Head dark blue/grey to almost black, reaching down to the cheeks, yellow throat and now eyebrow. Can have a minor white malar stripe. Dark headed males can look closely to M.f.feldegg but neck and mantle are less contrasting in M.f.thunbergi.
C & N Scandinavia & N Estonia E thru Siberia to the R Kolyma. Winters mainly sub- Saharan Africa, possibly NE Africa and across S & SE Asia.
M. f. plexa (form) – north Siberian yellow wagtail Males like M. f. thunbergi but ears darker, top of head lighter, vestigial supercilium.
- M. f. cinereocapilla – italian wagtail. Dark blue head with only small hint of an eyebrow behind the eye.
Italy, Sardinia, Sicily, SW Slovenia & NW Croatia. Winters along Mediterranean coast and Mali E to Lake Chad.
- M.f. iberea - iberian wagtail. Dark blue head, white throat and clear white eyebrow.
Iberia, SW France and NW Africa S to islands of Banc d’Arguin (Mauritania). Winters W & NC Africa.
- M.f. pygmaea - egyptian wagtail. Simular to M. f. cinereocapilla but smaller.
Nile valley & NW Sinai (Egypt).
- M. f. feldegg – black-headed wagtail. Like M. f. thunbergi but black cap in males, yellow throat strong contrasting line between black in the neck and brown/green mantle.
Bulgaria, S Romania, S Slovenia, W Croatia, Bosnia, S Serbia, Albania, Macedonia, Greece & Crete NE to S Ukraine and E to Turkey, E Mediterranean, Iraq, W Caspian, Iran, Afghanistan & S Kazakhstan E to L Balkhash, Lake Alakol and adjacent N Xinjiang (China). Winters mainly Nigeria E to Sudan and S to Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi & N DR Congo.
M. f. melanogrisea (form) – turkestan black-headed wagtail Similar to M. f. feldegg, but white malar stripe and more green than brown neck/mantle.
- M. f. lutea – yellow-headed wagtail Head yellow with green neck in males. Head pattern less marked as in other wagtails. Reminds on male Citrine Wagtail.
SW Russia between lower R Volga and R Irtysh and N Kazakhstan E to L Chany & L Zaysan. Winters Africa & Indian subcontinent.
- M. f. beema – Sykes' wagtail Like M .f .flava but head lighter grey, ears washed white.
Upper R Volga E to SW Siberia and S to N Kazakhstan & Altai Mts and Ladakh & possibly also N Kashmir (W Himalayas). Winters mainly Indian subcontinent also Arabia & E Africa.
- M. f. leucocephala – white-headed yellow wagtail. Male like M. f. flava, but grey of head very pale, almost white.
NW Mongolia, N Xinjiang (extreme NW China) and adjacent parts of far eastern Russia. Winters in India probably.
INTEGRATES YELLOW WAGTAILS
M. f. xanthophryx Like M. f. feldegg but with yellow eyebrow (feldegg x lutea)
M. f. superciliaris Like M. f. feldegg but with white eyebrow (feldegg x flava or beema)
M.f.dombrowskii Like M. f. flava but with dark(er) ear coverts (feldegg x flava or beema / thunbergi x flava or beema)